When a cause cannot be found


There is a philosophical problem within medicine: how to deal with causal complexity and variations. While existing methods are designed for large scale population data and sufficiently homogenous sub-groups, a number of medical conditions are characterised by their heterogenic and complex nature: low back pain (LBP), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), tension-type headache (TTH), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and many others. Continue reading


Do we need causation in science?

https://raniblogsaboutcausation.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/4fdd8-fourweddingsandafuneral2.jpgNot everyone thinks we need causation in science. Causation is so hard to pin down and so easy to get wrong, so why don’t we instead just stick to the data? Without speculating over causal relationships we could then establish that people are happier without children, that married men live longer and that life expectancy for smokers is ten years shorter than for non-smokers. What more do we need to know? Continue reading